♦ Dharma Pātañjala

Andrea Acri, Dharma Pātañjala; A Śaiva Scripture from Ancient Java Studied in the Light of Related Old Javanese and Sanskrit TextsEgbert Forsten 2012, pp. xviii + 706. Gonda Indological Series XVI

The book presents an edition, English translation and study of the Dharma Pātañjala, a previously unpublished Old Javanese-Sanskrit Śaiva scripture transmitted through a single palm-leaf codex of West Javanese origin dating back to the 15th century AD.
The cultural and doctrinal background of the text, as well as its codicological and philological aspects, are introduced in Part I. Part II presents an annotated diplomatic edition of the text with facsimile reproductions of the codex on facing pages, followed by a critical edition with English annotated translation. Part III is a systematic study focusing on the interpretation of the doctrines taught in the Dharma Pātañjala in comparison with related Sanskrit texts from the Indian Subcontinent and Old Javanese scriptures from the Indonesian Archipelago.
The Dharma Pātañjala is doubly important: first, because it has been preserved on a codex belonging to a rare tradition of manuscripts from Java, which is significantly older than the majority of Balinese manuscripts containing Old Javanese texts; and second, because it documents an early tradition of speculative texts (Tattva), which was previously known to us only through two Old Javanese scriptures, namely the Vṛhaspatitattva and the Tattvajñāna. The Dharma Pātañjala thus fills a gap in our knowledge of Śaiva theology and philosophy in pre-Islamic Indonesia, and also casts light on the origin and development of Śaivism in the Indian Subcontinent.
The author of the Dharma Pātañjala adopted a variety of Pātañjala (aṣṭāṅga) yoga instead of the Śaiva (ṣaḍaṅga) yoga that is common in other Old Javanese texts, and attuned it to a Śaiva doctrinal framework. When elaborating his syncretic system, the author seemingly followed a hitherto unknown commentarial tradition to the Sanskrit Yogasūtra that is related, albeit by no means identical, to that of the Yogasūtrabhāṣya. The Dharma Pātañjala also documents a variety of non-dualist Śaivism that may be regarded as early Saiddhāntika in nature, but in which more archaic, pre-Saiddhāntika (i.e. Pāśupata) elements have been retained as doctrinal ‘fossils’.

CONTENTS

Preface — XI
Notes on Conventions — XIV

I INTRODUCTION

The Text and its Place in the Tutur/Tattva Genre — 3
The West Javanese Tutur Tradition — 3
Tuturs vis-à-vis Tattvas — 8
Relative Chronology of Tuturs and Tattvas — 10
Tuturs and Tattvas vis-à-vis Sanskrit Siddhāntatantras — 11
Title of the Text — 16
Structure — 17
Dialogic Framework — 20
Śāstric Style — 23
Résumé — 29
Manuscript — 43
History — 44
Script — 47
Colophon — 50
Language — 53
Spelling — 53
Non-standard Old Javanese forms — 61
Non-standard Sanskrit tadbhavas — 62
Scribal Errors — 65
Omission — 65
Addition — 69
Substitution — 72
Transposition — 79
Other Sources of Corruption — 79
Editorial Policies — 81
Why Two Editions? — 81
Diplomatic Edition — 83
Critical Edition — 88
Treatment of Sanskrit — 95
Notes on the Translation — 97

II TEXT & TRANSLATION

Facsimile Reproductions & Parallel Diplomatic Edition — 101
Critical Edition & Parallel Translation — 193

III DOCTRINE

The Lord — 343
As the Absolute — 343
As Personal God — 355
As an Incarnated Being — 365
As the Same as or Different from His Creation — 378
As the Material or Instrumental Cause of the Universe — 388

The Soul — 391
Vis-à-vis the Lord — 392
Losing its Divine Status — 398
At Liberation — 410
Obtaining the Lord’s Powers during Life — 418

Cosmos — 421
Lord, Soul, Māyā — 422
The Thirty Principles of the Universe — 424
Cosmography and Geography — 429

Man — 435
Citta and Buddhi — 435
Bhāvas and Pratyayas — 439
Ahaṅkāra, Manas and the Lower Constituents — 448
Physiology — 456
Subtle Body — 459

Karma — 463

Yoga — 477
Samādhi and the stages of Yoga — 481
The Eight Ancillaries — 510
The Yogic Powers — 528
Prayogasandhi — 544

Right Knowledge — 551
As Salvific Knowledge — 551
As the Three Valid Means of Knowledge — 552

Wrong Knowledge — 557
The Materialist Doctrine — 559
Admitting only Direct Perception — 564
Denying the Lord and Summum Bonum — 570
Upholding Non-Existence as Origin and End of the Universe — 584
Denying Causation — 592
Denying Karma — 595
Denying Heaven and Hell — 598
Denying Soul and Liberation — 602
Upholding Hedonism — 611

APPENDICES — 617
A: Parallel Synopses of Three Tattvas — 619
B: Parallel Synopses of the Yogapāda of the DhPāt and the YS[Bh] — 633
C: Transliteration Tables — 637

SIGLA — 639
BIBLIOGRAPHY — 643
GENERAL INDEX — 671
INDEX OF TEXT PASSAGES — 689


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